Report by “Youth Bridge Organization” – Ezidi 24 – Particular
This report focuses on the government`s performance in Sinjar\North subdistrict regarding both education and health sections in some areas of this region so, it is neutral in covering these areas. The report is based on information were collected and documented by activators from that area, who have been trained on monitoring and documenting processes. As well as making interviews with people working in these sections in order to know the situation of education and health in Sinjar after ISIS` occupation. The aim of the report is to assay the government`s performance in the region.
These activators have been receiving trainings on collecting information from their sources without being affected by personal opinions of different people in the region. Here, we are delivering an informational report not as analyzing or justifying health and education situation in the region.
It has to be mentioned that this report does not introduce an assessment of the situation of health and education services, rather it gives a real view on these sections after all of the damage they had upon ISIS` occupation on 3rd of Aug 2014 and after returning of a relatively good number of people to their houses.
Health and education sections are considered crucial sections, which help in returning people to their houses. On the other hand, if the services were not good, people would lose the encouragement for return.
We have not made any change on the information, because our aim is to organize and arrange them. The information here indicate the real status of services of these two sections, and they state that the status of health and education should be reviewed as soon as possible otherwise people will be directly and strongly affected. This could be a reason for back-return of people to areas they displaced to before.
This report concentrates on Sinjar region\120km west Mosul, which has exposed to ISIS` brattle attacks on third of August 2014. These attacks are considered as Yazidi genocide that has yield to murder and kidnapping more than 10 thousands people (6314 women and children were kidnapped), it is believed that their corpses are in 73 mass graves (formally recognized by Martyrs and Mass Graves Foundation), including the massacre that occurred in Kujo village on 15th of August 2014. The attacks included the damage of complexes and center of Sinjar city, which were recognized by Iraqi parliament as catastrophic areas. More than 400 thousands people (most were Yazidis) were forced to displace to Kurdistan region, especially Duhok, and now living in more than 16 IDP camps and uncompleted houses in nearby villages with thousands remaining on the top of Sinjar Mountain and returning of thousands of them to complexes in North district\ Sinoni and villages subordinate to it.
This report which is one of the Youth Bridge Organization`s projects, which has initialized and trained the monitoring team. Youth Bridge Organization is one of the nascent, non-governmental organizations that work on developing youth`s abilities in building peace and community coherence projects. This organization works in in Nineveh governorate, mainly Sinjar. This project was implemented by Youth Bridge with investment and support from National Endowment for Democracy (NED). The report focuses on diagnosing the services situation in Sinjar, which has a crucial relationship with stability, returning of people, and peace building in this area. The way that Youth Bridge take to implement the project and diagnose the challenges that people have in their way to return to Sinjar are based on reasons mentioned above.
Education is considered as one of the important sections in Sinjar, this section has been influenced after ISIS` occupation on the region and discontinuation of thousands of students for many years in their studies. That has affected the education in general and has led to leave of many students from educational institutions, due to the control and use of educational institutes by armed groups that are in the region for long periods. The information and statistics indicate that hundreds of teachers are unable to continue their job for the reasons mentioned above or due to their displacement or migration to other countries. These indicators had a great influence on the situation in the region including increasing in unemployment ratio and unrecognized future of youths.
The efforts that are exerted by international NGOs and local government to improve education in the region notwithstanding, there is still big and serious challenges that hinder the improvement of this section in the region. The statistics presented in this report show the level of educational system including needs, devices, and buildings.
According to the statistics that we have (2019), there is about 21 qualified schools of Arabic system distributed throughout Sinjar, the number of students is more than 10 thousands, with 65 employees including head teachers, and there are about 350 volunteer teachers.
Regarding the schools with Kurdish system, there are 18 qualified schools in North and their challenges are more complicated because of the conflicts in Sinjar and between Baghdad and Erbil as well. This leads to decreased desire to join these schools by students for fear of losing their future because they are unable to join Iraqi universities and difficulty to be accepted in Kurdistan ones if the situation stayed as it is. These two schools suffer from problems associated with students` future and lack of teaching staff. Most of the teachers remain in IDP camps and provide Kurdish teaching to thousands of students there. In IDP camps, there are also Arabic schools but they suffer from lack of teaching staff and needs owe to increased number of students and insufficient classes, which become crowded with students.
Difficulties and challenges that education section has in North District:
There are still lots of difficulties and challenges that hinder the education process in North District because of the big damage that has affected the educational foundations and migration of many teachers. Following are challenges that have been concluded from preparing this report:
- Big lack in scholar accessories including desks, books, and other necessary accessories.
- Lack of the educational staff and most of the teachers are volunteers who may leave if they do not become employees or do not paid well.
- Increasing in number of students with fewer schools available, this may lead to presence of a large number of students in one class, which may influence on the teaching process and students` understanding.
- Absence of specialized teachers in a number of subjects, this leads to ask for teachers from other specialties and thus affecting students` understanding.
- Difficulties in reaching schools because of the distance between schools and students` houses and lack of transportations.
- Difficulties in living situations and instability of the safety in the region affects students.
- Absence of entertaining places, playing fields, and rest places in schools.
- Absence of gas for heaters (in winter).
- Many of schools need to be rehabilitated and renovated especially their WCs.
- Absence of financial help for students from poor class families.
- Poor programs to help students to return back to schools after their discontinuation because of ISIS` occupation on the region.
- Lack of governmental support and late arrival of accessories from Mosul.
Recommendations to improve education in North District:
According to the interviews and visits the monitoring team did, there are some recommendations that aim to improve education:
- Opening of kindergartens in all complexes.
- Opining of vocational high schools in Sinjar and Sinoni.
- Opening of literacy education centers in Sardashti, there are tens of women who have not attended school.
- Opening of primary and high schools in Sardashti camp, and completing Kurdish schools there.
- Opening of a vocational institute in Sinjar due to the region`s need to this staff.
- Rehabilitation of nursing high school and teachers preparing institute.
- Emptying schools, which have been taken over by armed and governmental groups.
- Employing the volunteer teachers.
- Rehabilitation of damaged schools because of war (10 schools).
- Find a solution for schools that are teaching Kurdish teaching (Latin alphabets) which has been founded by parties in the region since 2015.
Health section is one of the most affected sections in Sinjar by the conflicts that occurred in this region. This led to great influence on the health services in the region, on three levels accessories, staff, and medications. Regardless to the efforts done by Non-governmental organizations, international organizations, and poor efforts of local government to revive this section in Sinjar, there are still lots of difficulties that health in Sinjar has and affect the return of people to their houses. Patients suffer from the long distance to reach health services in Telafar- Mosul- or Kurdistan region as well as their interests to go to these paces due to the fear that ISIS caused.
The information mentioned bellow are collected from Sinjar, show the real situation of this section, the challenges that this section has, and recommendations to improve this section. In 66 villages and towns we covered, there are only 8 health centers with 230 health staff. Still there are many challenges for these centers including laboratories which all of these centers lack.
There are many recommendations from all centers including:
- Increasing the capacity of Sinoni hospital to 100 bed with surgery, pediatric, renal diseases, and emergency departments.
- Health center in Sinoni.
- Transforming partial health centers to completed ones and building new ones in Karsi, Yosufa, and Sharaf alden temple.
- General analysis laboratory.
- Ambulance center in Sinjar mountain camp.
- Special department for family planning.
- Improving and expanding psychology department in Sinoni.
Recommendations for rehabilitating health section including:
- Developing the buildings that already exist urgently.
- Building and constructing new laboratories.
- Developing health centers and opining new departments.
- Providing the health section in Sinjar with medications and medicinal accessories without lateness.
- Implementing special programs for health promotion and providing necessary vaccines.
- Increasing in the staff number specially specialist doctors.
- Opening special centers for maternity, ophthalmology, and chronic diseases.
Important statistics of health section in North District:
|Specialists||Doctors||Pharmacist||Dentist||Pharmacy assistance||Lab assistance||X-ray assistance||Doctor assistance||Nurse assistance||Gynecologist assistance||Nurse||Employees||Drivers|
Patients\ per day:
70 if the specialist is present.
40-45 if not present.
- Emergency 50-60
- Chronic diseases:
Heart diseases 10-13.
According to the population in the region, these services are not appropriate for this huge number. Therefore, Development and rehabilitation of health section is one of the important factors that improve the movement in this region and help people to return to their houses in Sinjar. There is a big lack in the staff and even referring patients is difficult due to the long distances and security situations.
The monitoring team in Youth Bridge Organization was trained on collecting information and monitoring them in order to prepare this report to document health and education sections in Sinjar and surroundings areas, which were 66 villages and towns. People from different backgrounds such as Yazidi, Christian, Muslims, and Turkmen are living in these areas. In some areas a mixtures of these religions and ethics are living together representing the prefect sample for life in Iraq such as Duhla and Hardan. This report highlights health and education services situation in addition to main problems and challenges of these sections. These sections are considered crucial factors affecting on people return from camps.
Regardless to the efforts done by local and international organizations, still services situation does not fit with people`s will to return. The rate of families returned is regarded very small in comparing with the period after freeing this area from ISIS` occupation. After passage of almost 4 years on North district`s freeing operation, about 14% of the families returned to their houses. This is because number of qualified schools is 39 while non-qualified ones is 39 as well. The health centers` situation is much worse, there are only 8 qualified health centers in 66 villages and towns. These qualifications emphasize how people refuse to return within these conditions and services.